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The ministry, according to the Global Times, asked India to withdraw its troops and equipment from what it called the "Chinese territory".
Citing the ministry, the daily said that 53 people and a bulldozer from the Indian side remain in "Chinese territory" as of Monday.
"India should withdraw its troops and equipment...They have gravely infringed on China's sovereignty," the ministry was quoted as having said by the daily.
"In addition, there are still a large number of Indian armed forces congregating on the boundary and on the Indian side of the boundary," Geng had said.
A 15-page fact sheet issued by the Chinese Foreign Ministry had earlier said that there were over 40 Indian border troops and one bulldozer in the area by the July end.
Countering Chinese contention, sources in New Delhi last week maintained that around 350 Indian Army personnel have been in Doklam for last six weeks after China tried to build a road in the area, triggering the standoff.
China claimed it was constructing the road within their territory and has been demanding immediate pull-out of the Indian troops from the disputed Doklam plateau. Bhutan says Doklam belongs to it but China claims the area belongs to it and says Thimphu has no dispute with Beijing over it.
India's position on the issue was made clear by External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj recently, saying both sides should first pull back their troops for any talks to take place, favouring a peaceful resolution of the border standoff.