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Uttar Pradesh was among the top three states to show incremental improvement in health care and family welfare during 2014-15 and 2015-16.
The state was ranked last on the health index released by the NITI Aayog on Friday.
The index ranked the states and Union Territories on the basis of 23 key health outcomes, health systems and service delivery indicators. The outcomes were sourced from Health Management Information Systems (HMIS), National Family Health Survey–4, and data from the health ministry.
The states were segregated into large and small, while Union Territories were given a separate category.
The World Bank, experts in public health and economics and state governments helped the NITI Aayog draft the index. The index, in turn, will help the Centre assess the impact and reach of various social sector programmes.
Kerala topped in terms of overall performance but had shown the least incremental change. With the state achieving low neo-natal and under-five mortality rates, it did not have much room for further improvement.
According to the index, one-third of the states had registered a decline in their performance in 2016, underlining the need for domain-specific and targeted inventions. For most states, the common challenges included vacancies in key staff, quality accreditation of public health facilities and institutionalisation of a human resources management information system.
Health Secretary Preeti Sudan said the government plans to link the index to all incentives and funds the states receive for health and family welfare.
A second part of the report will be released in June, along with a ranking of 730 district hospitals in the country.