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The inverted theory of salt in food

If you eat a lot of salt you will become thirsty and drink water

Gina Kolata | NYT 

The inverted theory of salt in food

The equation taught to doctors for more than 200 years is not hard to understand. The body relies on this essential mineral for a variety of functions, including blood pressure and the transmission of nerve impulses. levels in the blood must be carefully maintained. If you eat a lot of chloride — you will become thirsty and drink water, diluting your blood enough to maintain the proper concentration of Ultimately you will excrete much of the excess and water in The theory is intuitive and simple. And it may be completely wrong.
 
New studies of Russian cosmonauts, held in isolation to simulate space travel, show that eating more made them less thirsty but somehow hungrier. Subsequent experiments found that mice burned more calories when they got more salt, eating 25 per cent more just to maintain their weight.


 
The research, published recently in two dense papers in The Journal of Clinical Investigation, contradicts much of the conventional wisdom about how the body handles and suggests that high levels may play a role in weight loss.
 
James R Johnston, a professor at the University of Pittsburgh, marked each unexpected finding in the margins of the two papers. The studies were covered with scribbles by the time he was done.
 
The new studies are the culmination of a decades-long quest by a determined scientist, Jens Titze, now a kidney specialist at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and the Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research in Erlangen, Germany.
 
In 1991, as a medical student in Berlin, he took a class on human physiology in extreme environments. The professor who taught the course worked with the European space program and presented data from a simulated 28-day mission in which a crew lived in a small capsule. The main goal was to learn how the crew members would get along. But the scientists also had collected the astronauts’ and other physiological markers. Titze noticed something puzzling in the crew members’ data: Their volumes went up and down in a seven-day cycle. That contradicted all he’d been taught in medical school: There should be no such temporal cycle.
 
In 1994, the Russian space program decided to do a 135-day simulation of life on the Mir space station. Titze arranged to go to Russia to study patterns among the crew members and how these were affected by in the diet. A striking finding emerged: a 28-day rhythm in the amount of the cosmonauts’ bodies retained that was not linked to the amount of they produced. And the rhythms were much more pronounced than the patterns. The levels should have been rising and falling with the volume of In 2006, the Russian space program announced two more simulation studies, one lasting 105 days and the other 520 days. When the crew ate more salt, they excreted more salt; the amount of in their blood remained constant, and their volume increased. “But then we had a look at fluid intake, and were more than surprised,” Titze said. Instead of drinking more, the crew were drinking less in the long run when getting more So where was the excreted water coming from? “There was only one way to explain this phenomenon,” Titze said. “The body most likely had generated or produced water when intake was high.”
 
The crew also complained that they were always hungry on the high-diet. But tests suggested another explanation. The crew members were increasing production of glucocorticoid hormones, which influence both metabolism and immune function.
 
To get further insight, Titze began a study of mice in the laboratory. Sure enough, the more he added to the animals’ diet, the less water they drank. And he saw why. The animals were getting water — but not by drinking it. The increased levels of glucocorticoid hormones broke down fat and muscle in their own bodies. This freed up water for the body to use. Scientists knew that a starving body will burn its own fat and muscle for sustenance. But the realization that something similar happens on a salty diet has come as a revelation. One of the many implications of this finding is that may be involved in weight loss. Generally, scientists have assumed that a high-diet encourages a greater intake of fluids, which increases weight. But if balancing a higher intake requires the body to break down tissue, it may also increase energy expenditure.
 
Still, Titze said he would not advise eating a lot of to lose weight. If his results are correct, more will make you hungrier in the long run, so you would have to be sure you did not eat more food to make up for the extra calories burned.
© 2017 The New York Times

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The inverted theory of salt in food

If you eat a lot of salt you will become thirsty and drink water

If you eat a lot of salt you will become thirsty and drink water The equation taught to doctors for more than 200 years is not hard to understand. The body relies on this essential mineral for a variety of functions, including blood pressure and the transmission of nerve impulses. levels in the blood must be carefully maintained. If you eat a lot of chloride — you will become thirsty and drink water, diluting your blood enough to maintain the proper concentration of Ultimately you will excrete much of the excess and water in The theory is intuitive and simple. And it may be completely wrong.
 
New studies of Russian cosmonauts, held in isolation to simulate space travel, show that eating more made them less thirsty but somehow hungrier. Subsequent experiments found that mice burned more calories when they got more salt, eating 25 per cent more just to maintain their weight.
 
The research, published recently in two dense papers in The Journal of Clinical Investigation, contradicts much of the conventional wisdom about how the body handles and suggests that high levels may play a role in weight loss.
 
James R Johnston, a professor at the University of Pittsburgh, marked each unexpected finding in the margins of the two papers. The studies were covered with scribbles by the time he was done.
 
The new studies are the culmination of a decades-long quest by a determined scientist, Jens Titze, now a kidney specialist at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and the Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research in Erlangen, Germany.
 
In 1991, as a medical student in Berlin, he took a class on human physiology in extreme environments. The professor who taught the course worked with the European space program and presented data from a simulated 28-day mission in which a crew lived in a small capsule. The main goal was to learn how the crew members would get along. But the scientists also had collected the astronauts’ and other physiological markers. Titze noticed something puzzling in the crew members’ data: Their volumes went up and down in a seven-day cycle. That contradicted all he’d been taught in medical school: There should be no such temporal cycle.
 
In 1994, the Russian space program decided to do a 135-day simulation of life on the Mir space station. Titze arranged to go to Russia to study patterns among the crew members and how these were affected by in the diet. A striking finding emerged: a 28-day rhythm in the amount of the cosmonauts’ bodies retained that was not linked to the amount of they produced. And the rhythms were much more pronounced than the patterns. The levels should have been rising and falling with the volume of In 2006, the Russian space program announced two more simulation studies, one lasting 105 days and the other 520 days. When the crew ate more salt, they excreted more salt; the amount of in their blood remained constant, and their volume increased. “But then we had a look at fluid intake, and were more than surprised,” Titze said. Instead of drinking more, the crew were drinking less in the long run when getting more So where was the excreted water coming from? “There was only one way to explain this phenomenon,” Titze said. “The body most likely had generated or produced water when intake was high.”
 
The crew also complained that they were always hungry on the high-diet. But tests suggested another explanation. The crew members were increasing production of glucocorticoid hormones, which influence both metabolism and immune function.
 
To get further insight, Titze began a study of mice in the laboratory. Sure enough, the more he added to the animals’ diet, the less water they drank. And he saw why. The animals were getting water — but not by drinking it. The increased levels of glucocorticoid hormones broke down fat and muscle in their own bodies. This freed up water for the body to use. Scientists knew that a starving body will burn its own fat and muscle for sustenance. But the realization that something similar happens on a salty diet has come as a revelation. One of the many implications of this finding is that may be involved in weight loss. Generally, scientists have assumed that a high-diet encourages a greater intake of fluids, which increases weight. But if balancing a higher intake requires the body to break down tissue, it may also increase energy expenditure.
 
Still, Titze said he would not advise eating a lot of to lose weight. If his results are correct, more will make you hungrier in the long run, so you would have to be sure you did not eat more food to make up for the extra calories burned.
© 2017 The New York Times
image
Business Standard
177 22

The inverted theory of salt in food

If you eat a lot of salt you will become thirsty and drink water

The equation taught to doctors for more than 200 years is not hard to understand. The body relies on this essential mineral for a variety of functions, including blood pressure and the transmission of nerve impulses. levels in the blood must be carefully maintained. If you eat a lot of chloride — you will become thirsty and drink water, diluting your blood enough to maintain the proper concentration of Ultimately you will excrete much of the excess and water in The theory is intuitive and simple. And it may be completely wrong.
 
New studies of Russian cosmonauts, held in isolation to simulate space travel, show that eating more made them less thirsty but somehow hungrier. Subsequent experiments found that mice burned more calories when they got more salt, eating 25 per cent more just to maintain their weight.
 
The research, published recently in two dense papers in The Journal of Clinical Investigation, contradicts much of the conventional wisdom about how the body handles and suggests that high levels may play a role in weight loss.
 
James R Johnston, a professor at the University of Pittsburgh, marked each unexpected finding in the margins of the two papers. The studies were covered with scribbles by the time he was done.
 
The new studies are the culmination of a decades-long quest by a determined scientist, Jens Titze, now a kidney specialist at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and the Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research in Erlangen, Germany.
 
In 1991, as a medical student in Berlin, he took a class on human physiology in extreme environments. The professor who taught the course worked with the European space program and presented data from a simulated 28-day mission in which a crew lived in a small capsule. The main goal was to learn how the crew members would get along. But the scientists also had collected the astronauts’ and other physiological markers. Titze noticed something puzzling in the crew members’ data: Their volumes went up and down in a seven-day cycle. That contradicted all he’d been taught in medical school: There should be no such temporal cycle.
 
In 1994, the Russian space program decided to do a 135-day simulation of life on the Mir space station. Titze arranged to go to Russia to study patterns among the crew members and how these were affected by in the diet. A striking finding emerged: a 28-day rhythm in the amount of the cosmonauts’ bodies retained that was not linked to the amount of they produced. And the rhythms were much more pronounced than the patterns. The levels should have been rising and falling with the volume of In 2006, the Russian space program announced two more simulation studies, one lasting 105 days and the other 520 days. When the crew ate more salt, they excreted more salt; the amount of in their blood remained constant, and their volume increased. “But then we had a look at fluid intake, and were more than surprised,” Titze said. Instead of drinking more, the crew were drinking less in the long run when getting more So where was the excreted water coming from? “There was only one way to explain this phenomenon,” Titze said. “The body most likely had generated or produced water when intake was high.”
 
The crew also complained that they were always hungry on the high-diet. But tests suggested another explanation. The crew members were increasing production of glucocorticoid hormones, which influence both metabolism and immune function.
 
To get further insight, Titze began a study of mice in the laboratory. Sure enough, the more he added to the animals’ diet, the less water they drank. And he saw why. The animals were getting water — but not by drinking it. The increased levels of glucocorticoid hormones broke down fat and muscle in their own bodies. This freed up water for the body to use. Scientists knew that a starving body will burn its own fat and muscle for sustenance. But the realization that something similar happens on a salty diet has come as a revelation. One of the many implications of this finding is that may be involved in weight loss. Generally, scientists have assumed that a high-diet encourages a greater intake of fluids, which increases weight. But if balancing a higher intake requires the body to break down tissue, it may also increase energy expenditure.
 
Still, Titze said he would not advise eating a lot of to lose weight. If his results are correct, more will make you hungrier in the long run, so you would have to be sure you did not eat more food to make up for the extra calories burned.


© 2017 The New York Times

image
Business Standard
177 22