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However, in the new study, researchers used mice to show how alcohol exposure leads to permanent genetic damage.
The new findings help us to understand how drinking alcohol increases the risk of developing seven types of cancer, including common types like breast and bowel, they said.
The study also examined how the body tries to protect itself against damage caused by alcohol. The first line of defence is a family of enzymes called aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH).
These enzymes break down harmful acetaldehyde into acetate, which our cells can use as a source of energy.
Worldwide, millions of people, particularly those from South East Asia, either lack these enzymes or carry faulty versions of them, researchers said.
When they drink, acetaldehyde builds up which causes a flushed complexion, and also leads to them feeling unwell, they said.
In the study, when mice lacking the critical ALDH enzyme - ALDH2 - were given alcohol, it resulted in four times as much DNA damage in their cells compared to mice with the fully functioning ALDH2 enzyme.
However, they do not always work and some people carry mutations which mean their cells are not able to carry out these repairs effectively.
"But it is important to remember that alcohol clearance and DNA repair systems are not perfect and alcohol can still cause cancer in different ways, even in people whose defence mechanisms are intact," he added.