The penalty applies to the Paris Saint-Germain player, his parents and three companies that manage his finances, according to the federal regional court, reports Xinhua news agency.
Judge Carlos Muta said Neymar and his representatives acted in "bad faith" by using appeal processes to delay a final judgment.
Neymar's representatives were not immediately available for comment.
In 2015, a local court froze assets belonging to the Brazilian worth 192.7 million reais ($607.24 million) to ensure the payment of outstanding taxes and possible fines.
The 25-year-old is accused of evading 63.6 million reais ($20.04 million) in taxes from 2011 to 2013 by using front companies to hide the true value of his income.
Most of the amount relates to Neymar's controversial transfer to Barcelona from Santos in 2013.