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The radical plan aims to reduce car usage in the capital by 3 million every day, reports Xinhua news agency.
Khan also set an ambition to ensure for 70 per cent of all Londoners live within 400 metres of a high quality, safe cycle route.
New developments in London will also be designed around a "Healthy Streets" initiative to directly promoting walking, cycling and greater use of public transport.
Khan on Wednesday said not having to use a car in London must be the "affordable, safest and most convenient option for residents of the capital."
The proposals are outlined in the first draft of Khan's new Transport Strategy.
The mayor's target is to increase the proportion of people walking, cycling and taking public transport to 80 per cent of their journeys by 2041. Currently, 64 per cent of people in London use those modes of transport.
Khan said with London's population set to expand from 8.7 million to 10.5 million over the next 25 years, it will generate more than five million additional trips each day across the transport network.
A key focus of the Mayor' Healthy Streets Approach, aims to see Londoners doing at least the 20 minutes of active travel each day to help them stay healthy.