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Giang Son, deputy chairman of the President's office, told reporters at a joint press conference on Wednesday that 4,384 inmates were granted amnesty under two directives signed by President Tran Dai Quang.
They will be released from their prisons starting Thursday. One of the prisoners is Bui Xuan Kim who was jailed for national security-related crime, according to Senior Lt Police General Nguyen Van Thanh.
Kim has served three years of his sentence for organizing people to flee to neighboring Cambodia.
International human rights groups, the US government and some other Western governments have urged Vietnamese government to release all prisoners of conscience jailed for peacefully expressing their views, but Hanoi says only those who broke the law are locked up.
Fourteen foreigners will also be released, according to Vice Foreign Minister Ha Kim Ngoc. They include nine from China, three from Laos and one each from South Korea and Australia.