The attack targeted the 209 Shaheen Corps on the outskirts of provincial capital Mazar-i-Sharif city at 2 p.m. (local time) before the Army launched a counter attack.
"One attacker was killed, one was arrested together with a suicide jacket and efforts are underway to kill or capture the third terrorist," the ministry said in a statement.
The attackers, disguised in Army uniform, arrived in two military jeeps and made their way after passing through the front gate.
"They fired one rocket and attacked a mosque where Army personnel were offering Friday prayer in the base," according to the statement.
The Taliban claimed the attack.
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