The 40-year-old retired after playing 25 Tests and scoring 2015 runs with five Test centuries at an average of 42.87. He bowed out of Test cricket at The Oval in 2015.
Pat Howard, CA's executive general manager of team performance, said Rogers was an "outstanding addition".
"Chris brings thoughtfulness, persistence and passion to the role and combines this with a strong intellect," he said on Wednesday.
"We're looking forward to having Chris work with Australia's next generation and watching him develop as a coach. We are confident he can have a big impact in moulding our rising stars into future international cricketers.
"He has a wealth of cricket experience that will be invaluable to the players he will be working with. He enjoyed a successful career at both international and first-class level, succeeding in Australia and overseas," he added.
He will start in May and has been contracted for two years.
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