The governing party at Holyrood, the Scottish Nationalists Party (SNP), won backing from Labour, Liberal Democrats and Greens MSPs to inflict the blow to British Prime Minister Theresa May's government.
Political commentators said although the vote is not binding on May's government, it presents the British prime minister with the dilemma of either imposing a power-sharing plan on Holyrood, or attempting to avert a crisis by putting forward concessions.
The Scottish parliament and Westminster have been at loggerheads for months over how to manage EU powers that will return to Britain after Brexit, including over state aid for industry, genetically modified crops policy, fishing quotas and farm subsidies, after ministers in London made a series of concessions brokered by the Scottish Conservatives.
Both sides agree those policies should operate uniformally across Britain.
May's government says it will consult the Scottish parliament on all changes to those policies, trying to seek agreement, while Sturgeon has decided that consultation is not enough and insists that her government should be given the legal power to block any changes it disagrees with.
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