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The increasing number of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a rapidly growing global problem.
Disease-causing bacteria become resistant through mutations of their own DNA or by acquiring resistance genes from other, often harmless, bacteria.
By analysing large volumes of DNA data, the researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg in Sweden, found 76 new types of resistance genes.
Several of these genes can provide bacteria with the ability to degrade carbapenems, the most powerful class of antibiotics used to treat multi-resistant bacteria.
"Our study shows that there are lots of unknown resistance genes. Knowledge about these genes makes it possible to more effectively find and hopefully tackle new forms of multi-resistant bacteria," said Erik Kristiansson, professor at Chalmers University of Technology.
"The more we know about how bacteria can defend themselves against antibiotics, the better are our odds for developing effective, new drugs," said Joakim Larsson, professor at the University of Gothenburg.
Identifying a resistance gene is also challenging if it has not previously been encountered. The research group solved this by developing new computational methods to find patterns in DNA that are associated with antibiotic resistance.
By testing the genes they identified in the laboratory, they could then prove that their predictions were correct.
The next step for the research groups is to search for genes that provide resistance to other forms of antibiotics.
"The novel genes we discovered are only the tip of the iceberg. There are still many unidentified antibiotic resistance genes that could become major global health problems in the future," Kristiansson said.
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