Shafiul, who last played for Bangladesh in October, replaces Subashis Roy, the only change to the squad that drew the recent ODI series 1-1 in Sri Lanka.
"Shafiul has been our one of the best bowlers of late, but we could not include him in the squad in recent tours because of fitness concerns," said chief selector Minhajul Abedin.
"Now he looks fit and we hope the conditions in UK will also suit his bowling," he added.
Wicketkeeper-batsman Nurul Hasan and all-rounder Shuvagata Hom, who were included in the extended squad in Sri Lanka but did not play, missed out.
They will feature in Group A alongside hosts England, and Australia and New Zealand in the eight-team event.
The Mashrafe Mortaza-led team will open their campaign against England at the Oval on June 1.
Bangladeshi selectors added Nurul, Roy and batsman Nasir Hossain to their squad for the tri-series event, which will be hosted by Ireland.
"He played well in recent competitions, so we decided to take him to the tri-series to help him readjust in the national team set-up," said Minhajul.
Bangladesh: Mashrafe Mortaza (capt), Tamim Iqbal, Imrul Kayes, Soumya Sarkar, Shakib Al Hasan, Mushfiqur Rahim, Mahmudullah Riyad, Sabbir Rahman, Mosaddek Hossain, Sanjamul Islam, Mustafizur Rahman, Taskin Ahmed, Rubel Hossain, Mehedi Hasan and Shafiul Islam.
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