Edwards played a captain's knock of 109 and became the highest run-scorer in women's cricket with 4901 runs, surpassing Aussie Belinda Clarke's 4,844. Incidentally, she also became the fourth woman to score over a 1,000 runs in World Cup.
During her 107 minutes at the crease, Edwards struck 16 fours, before being run out.
For India, Jhulan Goswami and Nilanjana Nagrajan grabbed two wickets apiece. The hosts, however, lost their way after a good start, allowing England off the hooks in the middle overs.
England got off to a slow start and lost opener Danielle Wyatt (2) in the fifth over, after being invited to bat.
Wyatt, who had got a reprieve when first slip fielder Thirushkamini Murugesan failed to latch on to the ball off Jhulan Goswami, was dismissed in the bowler's next over, when she was caught at mid wicket by Amita Sharma.
Having been reduced to four for one, the defending champions consolidated and skipper Edwards forged a century stand with one-down batter Sarah Taylor.
Taylor hit three fours, including the first one of the innings, before she was run out.
England added 62 runs for the third wicket with captain Edwards and Lydia Greenway taking the attack to India.
The duo extracted 15 runs of spinner Reema Malhotra's over -- the 32nd of the innings.
The two made most of the powerplay overs even though Greenway was dismissed in the process. England scored 45 runs in those five overs. Greenway's contribution was a quick 29 off 27 balls, which comprised of five fours.
Pacer Katherine Brunt also chipped in with 21 in 16 balls and struck four fours. England then lost a clutch of wickets quickly, but the middle order ensured that the overall score stood at fighting 270.
Indian pace spearhead Jhulan Goswami and Niranjana Nagrajan snapped up two wickets apiece, while left-arm spinner Gouher Sultana picked up a one.