The study by University of Southern California (USC) and Cancer Prevention Institute of California (CPIC) provides important new evidence on how pan-fried red meat and its cooking practices may increase the risk for prostate cancer.
Attention to cooking methods of red meat shows the risk of prostate cancer may be a result of potent chemical carcinogens formed when meats are cooked at high temperatures.
Researchers examined pooled data from nearly 2,000 men who participated in the Study.
Study participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire that evaluated amount and type of meat intake, including poultry and processed red meat.
Information regarding cooking practices like pan-frying, oven-broiling and grilling, was obtained using color photographs. More than 1,000 of the men included in the study were diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer.
"We found that men who ate more than 1.5 servings of pan-fried red meat per week increased their risk of advanced prostate cancer by 30 per cent," Mariana Stern, associate professor of preventive medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, said.
"In addition, men who ate more than 2.5 servings of red meat cooked at high temperatures were 40 per cent more likely to have advanced prostate cancer," said Stern, who led the study.
The study was published in the journal 'Carcinogenesis'.
When considering specific types of red meats, hamburgers, but not steak, were linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer, especially among Hispanic men, researchers said.
"We speculate that these findings are a result of different levels of carcinogen accumulation found in hamburgers, given that they can attain higher internal and external temperatures faster than steak," Stern said.