Women who work in night shifts may be at a significantly higher risk of breast, skin and stomach cancers, scientists have warned.
Since breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer among women worldwide, most previous meta-analyses have focused on understanding the association between female night shift workers and breast cancer risk, but the conclusions have been inconsistent.
To build upon previous studies, researchers from Sichuan University in China analysed whether long-term night shift work in women was associated with risk for nearly a dozen types of cancer.
They performed a meta-analysis using data from 61 articles comprising 114,628 cancer cases and 3,909,152 participants from North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia.
The articles consisted of 26 cohort studies, 24 case- control studies, and 11 nested case-control studies. These studies were analysed for an association between long-term night shift work and risk of 11 types of cancer.
A further analysis was conducted, which looked specifically at long-term night shift work and risk of six types of cancer among female nurses.
When analysing specific cancers, the researchers found that this population had an increased risk of skin (41 per cent), breast (32 per cent), and gastrointestinal cancer (18 per cent) compared with women who did not perform long-term night shift work.
After stratifying the participants by location, researchers found that an increased risk of breast cancer was only found among female night shift workers in North America and Europe.
"We were surprised to see the association between night shift work and breast cancer risk only among women in North America and Europe," said Xuelei Ma, from Sichuan University.
"It is possible that women in these locations have higher sex hormone levels, which have been positively associated with hormone-related cancers such as breast cancer," Ma said.
Among female nurses alone, those who worked the night shift had an increased risk of breast (58 per cent), gastrointestinal (35 per cent), and lung cancer (28 per cent) compared with those that did not work night shifts.
Of all the occupations analysed, nurses had the highest risk of developing breast cancer if they worked the night shift, according to study published in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention.
"Nurses that worked the night shift were of a medical background and may have been more likely to undergo screening examinations," said Ma.
"Another possible explanation for the increased cancer risk in this population may relate to the job requirements of night shift nursing, such as more intensive shifts," he said.
They found that the risk of breast cancer increased by 3.3 per cent for every five years of night shift work.
"Our study indicates that night shift work serves as a risk factor for common cancers in women," said Ma.
"These results might help establish and implement effective measures to protect female night shifters. Long-term night shift workers should have regular physical examinations and cancer screenings," he said.