Democrats complained that the Trump administration was trying to weaken the penalties.
The legislation sailed through the Senate nearly a month ago in response to Russia's meddling in the 2016 presidential election and its belligerence toward Ukraine. But the bill stalled in the House with Democrats and Republicans blaming each other.
Marc Short, White House legislative director, says the administration backs the new sanctions on Russia and Iran. But he appeared to object to a key part that would give Capitol Hill a much stronger hand in determining Russia sanctions policy.
The bill would require a congressional review if President Donald Trump attempts to ease or end penalties against Moscow.