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40 Years Ago... And now: Four eventful decades for India

  • PHOTO: INDIAN EXPRESS ARCHIVES

    Prime Minister Indira Gandhi unilaterally had a state of emergency declared across India. For much of the following 21 months, many of Gandhi’s most vocal political opponents were imprisoned and the Press was muzzled.

  • PHOTO: INDIAN EXPRESS ARCHIVES

    Dr Dattatray ‘Datta’ Samant was a politician and trade union leader who is remembered for leading the year-long strike of about 300,000 textile mill workers in Bombay (now Mumbai) that triggered the closure of most textile mills in the city.

  • PHOTO: INDIAN EXPRESS ARCHIVES

    (From left) Suzuki Motor President Osamu Suzuki, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Congress minister N D Tiwari (right) with a model car in Delhi before inaugurating the Maruti factory, on December 14, 1983. That year, the company rolled out its first Maruti 800, a 796-cc hatchback.

  • PHOTO: INDIAN EXPRESS ARCHIVES

    Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, the leader of the Sikh religious group Damdami Taksal, a noted supporter of the Anandpur Sahib Resolution and a strong opponent of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Under ‘Operation Blue Star’, initiated on June 3, 1984, Gandhi ordered the Army to raid Amritsar’s Golden Temple complex and remove alleged armed militants from there. Bhindranwale was killed in the operation.

  • FILE PHOTO

    Over 500,000 people were affected for life and thousands killed, after Union Carbide’s pesticide factory in Bhopal leaked toxic gases and chemicals on the intervening night of of December 2 and 3, 1984. The faulty tank responsible for the biggest industrial disaster in India is seen in this picture after officials probing the tragedy uncovered it on March 18 the next year.

  • PHOTO: INDIAN EXPRESS ARCHIVES

    A 1994 file photo of activist Medha Patkar protesting against the Dunkel proposals on agriculture, in New Delhi. Patkar had in 1989 initiated the Narmada Bachao Andolan, a movement against large dams being built across the Narmada river flowing through Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh.

  • PHOTO: INDIAN EXPRESS ARCHIVES

    Rajiv Goswami, a Delhi University student, shot into prominence for his self-immolation bid to protest against Prime Minister V P Singh’s implementation of the Mandal Commission recommendations on caste-based reservation. Goswami spearheaded a movement against job quotas and his efforts led to larger protests and a series of selfimmolations by college students across India. On February 24, 2004, Goswami died of injuries sustained in the selfimmolation bid, at the age of 33.

  • BS FILE PHOTO

    Finance Minister Manmohan Singh before presenting the annual Union Budget, on July 24, 1991. Singh’s Budget, which saw a revamp of the fiscal policy, is hailed for heralding economic reforms in India.

  • PHOTO: ASHOK VAHIE

    (From left) A young Rahul Gandhi, with sister Priyanka Gandhi and actor Amitabh Bachchan, at the funeral of his father Rajiv, in New Delhi. Rahul’s mother, Sonia Gandhi (right), is also seen. Former PM Rajiv Gandhi was killed when a suicide bomber blew herself up at an election rally near Chennai. The act of the bomber, Thenmozhi Rajaratnam, associated with separatist group LTTE, was believed to be in retaliation against Gandhi sending Indian peace-keeping force to Sri Lanka in 1987.

  • PHOTO: INDIAN EXPRESS ARCHIVES

    (From left)Ratan Tata, J R D Tata and Russi Mody, soon after Ratan was made chairman of Tata Sons, in January 1992. The previous year, J R D had stepped down and named Ratan his successor. The latter, after illustrious 20 years at the helm of affairs of the group, passed on the baton to Cyrus Mistry, on December 28, 2012, but continues as chairman emeritus of the group.

  • PHOTO: PIB

    Finance Minister P Chidambaram before presenting the Union Budget, on February 28. Chidambaram’s Budget reduced the rate for personal income-tax from 40% to 30%, and lowered corporation tax rates by removing surcharge and cutting royalty rates. The cap on foreign institutional investments was raised.

  • nuclear, India
    PHOTO: PTI

    Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee at Pokhran nuclear test site. India became a nuclear weapon state in May after conducting three successful explosions.

  • PHOTO: SURYAKANT NIWATE

    (From left) Jaguar Managing Director Mike O’Driscoll, Tata Motors Chairman Ratan Tata, Jaguar Chief Executive David Smith, Land Rover Group Marketing Director Phil Popham, and Tata Motors Vice-Chairman Ravi Kant, at a press conference in Mumbai to announce Jaguar-Land Rover’s official entry in India.

  • PHOTO: REUTERS

    Mumbai’s Taj Mahal hotel is seen burning in this November 27 file photo, after the city was hit by terrorist attacks at multiple locations the previous night. Indian commandos freed hostages from the Taj Mahal hotel after an overnight gunbattle with the Lashkar-e-Toiba militants. More than 150 people lost their lives as a series of 12 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai went on for four days.

  • BS FILE PHOTO

    Social activist Anna Hazare during his hunger strike demanding a strong Lok Pal Bill, at New Delhi’s Ramlila Maidan in July 2012. Hazare had in April 2011 launched a campaign to press for improvements in the Lok Pal and Lok Ayukta Bills that the government wanted to get passed.

  • PHOTO: SANJAY K SHARMA

    President Pranab Mukherjee administering oath of office and secrecy to Narendra Modi, who was elected India’s prime minister with a massive mandate in the Lok Sabha polls. Modi’s Bharatiya Janata Party toppled the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, which had been in power at the Centre for a decade. This was the first time in 30 years that a single party had won a majority in polls.

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