Lokesh Rahul was batting on 18 with Murali Vijay on two at the other end as the hosts trailed Australia's first innings total by 431 runs.
Jadeja returned figures of 5/124, the eighth five-wicket haul of his Test career and the fourth this season.
Skipper Steven Smith played a captain's innings for Australia and remained unbeaten on 178 to guide them to a big total. He hit 17 boundaries during the 361 balls he faced.
India (First Innings): 20/0 (Lokesh Rahul 18 batting, Murali Vijay 2 batting) vs Australia (First Innings): 451 (Steven Smith 178 not out, Glenn Maxwell 104; Ravindra Jadeja 5/124, Umesh Yadav 3/106).
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