The Russian foreign ministry said that Ghani had "in principle" supported the idea of such a meeting but said Afghanistan needed more time to develop a "consolidated" position including ongoing changes in the government.
"An agreement was reached to jointly work on a new date of the meeting through diplomatic channels," the ministry said in a statement.
The Afghan government faces fierce criticism over an increasingly deadly insurgency.
Yesterday Ghani rejected the resignations of the intelligence chief and the interior and defence ministers, demanding they help bolster the country's defences.
Earlier this month Ghani offered a conditional three-month ceasefire to the Taliban, a move welcomed by the United States and NATO after nearly 17 years of war.
The US was invited to that meeting but did not participate.
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