The Bill proposes a 10 per cent reservation over and above the 49.5 per cent currently in force for Scheduled Castes (15 per cent), Scheduled Tribes (7.5 per cent), and Other Backward Classes, or OBCs (27 per cent).
Finance Minister Arun Jaitley, speaking in the House earlier, rejected suggestions that the Bill goes against a Supreme Court judgement limiting reservation.
Social Justice Minister Thaavarchand Gehlot said he was confident that the Supreme Court will allow the Bill, responding to Opposition members' concerns.
"Your doubts are unfounded. Put them to rest," he told opposition members, many of whom dubbed the bill as "jumla" and "gimmick".
The Congress, the country’s main Opposition party, said it welcomed the Bill but criticised the government for enacting it as a “last minute” lollipop for the people.
As many as 323 members voted for the Constitution (124th Amendment) Bill 2019 and only three voted against it. The Bill will next move to the Rajya Sabha where the government lacks a majority and will be debated on Wednesday.