"The theatre of the absurd continues and I decided to recall our ambassador for consultation," Netanyahu said in a statement. "We will decide what the next steps will be."
It refers throughout to the Al-Aqsa Mosque/Al-Haram Al-Sharif religious complex, without using the Israeli name "Temple Mount," according a copy seen by AFP.
The site is the third holiest in Islam and the most holy in Judaism.
Senior Palestinian figure Saeb Erekat hailed the resolution, saying it "aims at reaffirming the importance of Jerusalem for the three monotheistic religions, Christianity, Judaism and Islam."
The heritage committee, made up of 21 member states, adopted by consensus the text proposed by Kuwait, Lebanon and Tunisia.
The vote comes eight days after a resolution of UNESCO's Executive Council on the same theme that infuriated Israel.