Bringing down the Berlin wall. The fall of the wall thirty years ago led to an influential belief in the “end of history”, meaning that civilisational values had triumphed, not just once, but for all time
The common thread stitching together the great revolutions of the modern era, such as the English, American, French, Russian, Chinese and anti-imperial (including the Indian freedom movement) was a virtuous paradigm of basic values on which modern civilisation rests.
This paradigm comprises reason and the scientific method (which accelerated material well-being), individual freedoms (on which democracy rests), the equality of all humans irrespective of colour or creed (which spawned the rule of law and socialist experiments), fraternity (the basis of modern nation states), humanism (which elevates human beings above the supernatural and divine) and secularity (the belief that all religions are equally valid, the end of the divine right of rulers and the separation of Church and State). At the
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First Published: Nov 30 2019 | 8:05 PM IST