The ninth round of the CMS-India Corruption Study (CMS-ICS 2013) specifically focused on access of women to certain basic and essential public services.
Women constitute around 49 percent of India's population (Census 2011); play a greater role in managing the household affairs than their counterpart and therefore, directly or indirectly are subject to far more negative consequences of ineffective governance - not only individually, but at household level.
This 2013 study focused on eight public services namely, Drinking Water, Electricity, Public Distribution System (PDS), Public Health/Hospital care, Housing, Municipal, Police and Judiciary.
The data collection for CMS-ICS 2013 was carried out between April and September 2013.
The states covered are Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab and Rajasthan. From each state, a sample of around 300 households was covered. From each selected household, an adult female member was interviewed.
The key findings of the study were:
Majority of women during the last one year had interacted with at least half of the eight public services covered in this round.
In PDS and Public health/hospital services, in 60 percent cases, the women respondent herself has interacted with the service provider of these pubic services - at least once during the last twelve months.
Among the most interacted services include, Electricity (77%) followed by PDS (60%), Water Supply (51%) and Public health/Hospital services (49%). Other public services, which are mainly Need-based services, had comparatively lesser interaction: Police (29%), Municipal (26%), Judiciary (22%) and Housing (18%).
In CMS-ICS 2013, more than half of the women (56%) shared that she or any member of the household experienced corruption at least once during the last 12 months. On a comparative note, in 2008 round, the percentage of women who reported experiencing corruption in public services was around 44 percent.
Among those who were asked for a bribe, 66% women shared that either she or any member of the family experienced the demand for a bribe at least once during the last 12 months, while another 24% came across such situation twice.
8 out of every 10 households, who were asked to pay bribe, had no option and paid bribe to avail the desired public service.
Women respondents shared that in five out of eight public services, between 20 and 25% of their families had to pay bribe or use influence to avail the services.
In all the states, except Bihar and Delhi, nearly two-third or more of the women reported experiencing corruption either by them or any of their family members while interacting with the public services covered in CMS-ICS 2013.
In Delhi and Rajasthan, compared to 2008, the percentage of women reporting 'experienced' corruption in public services was almost twice.
Could not Pay, Could Not Avail the Service at Household level
Around 5 percent of the women informed that their families were denied services because they could not pay a bribe.