Erdogan and Trump "exchanged views on the latest developments in Syria," a Turkish presidential source said, without providing further details.
The White House later confirmed the call and issued a brief readout.
The pair spoke "to discuss the current crisis in Syria," it said, adding: "The two leaders agreed to stay in close contact about the situation."
The talks come after Trump warned Russia over its support for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, saying US missiles "will be coming" in response to an alleged chemical weapons attack.
Turkish Prime Minister Binali Yildirim earlier in the day told Russia and the United States to end their "street fighting" over Syria, saying it was time to put aside a rivalry that risked harming civilians.
Turkey and the United States are key NATO allies, but their relations have been strained over a number of issues including Washington's support for Syrian Kurdish militia deemed as a terrorist outfit by Ankara.
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