Bakhtiyor Makhmudov and Zafarkhon Rakhmatov from Muslim-majority Tajikistan will serve their sentences in a "strict regime camp", a court statement said.
Almost 2,900 Russian jihadists, mainly from Muslim-majority republics in the south of the federation, have fought in Iraq and Syria, according the FSB.
Several thousand others from ex-Soviet Central Asian countries are also believed to have fought in conflicts there.
In 2017, Russia was hit by several terrorist attacks, the most serious of which left 15 dead and many injured in the metro of second city Saint Petersburg.
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