Data from the World Bank-supported National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey (NARSS) that concluded in February shows that only about 10% of rural Indians defecate in the open.
Reuters also visited the southern state of Karnataka. Across seven villages in Koppal district, at least 150 people defecate in the open, interviews with over 50 people showed. The Indian government also classifies Karnataka as "open defecation free".
Some say they were beaten or shamed by authorities publicly if found to be defecating outside. Others said they were threatened with food ration cuts.