After excelling in the gross domestic product (GDP) growth, Uttarakhand is yet again on the top of the chart according to the annual health survey (AHS).
Bageshwar, the hilly district of Uttarakhand, has reported minimum crude birth rate (CBR) of 14.7 as per the findings of the AHS in 284 districts of nine states, which account for 48 per cent of the total population of India.
The CBR, which is a measure of live births per 1,000 population, was maximum at 40.9 in Shrawasti district in Uttar Pradesh. CBR in rural areas is generally higher than in urban areas.
The CDR (crude death rate), which denotes number of deaths per 1,000 population was also maximum in Shrawasti at 12.6. Further, rural death rate in districts is significantly higher than the corresponding urban death rate. Low female death rates have also been observed as compared to male death rates.
Infant mortality rate (IMR), which denotes the number of infant deaths (below one year of age) per 1,000 live births, has been reported to be minimum at 19 in Rudraprayag in Uttarkhand, while in Shrawasti in Uttar Pradesh, it was maximum at 103, exhibiting a variation of five times.
Six districts — Purbi Singhbhum and Dhanbad (Jharkhand) besides Chamoli, Rudraprayag, Pithoragarh and Almora (Uttarakhand) — have already achieved the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4, which is a national target of 28 by 2015.
Four other districts — Bokaro and Ranchi (Jharkhand) and Bageshwar and Nainital (Uttarakhand) — are in closer vicinity. Female infants in districts experience higher mortality than male infants. IMR in rural areas of districts is significantly higher than that in urban areas.
Rudraprayag in Uttarkhand has reported the minimum Neo-Natal Mortality Rate (NNMR), which measures the number of infant deaths (aged below 29 days) per 1,000 live births, at 11 while Balangir in Orissa, the maximum at 75, showing a variability of seven times. Out of every 10 infant deaths, 6-7 pertain to neo natal deaths. Rural NNMR in districts is significantly higher than the urban NNMR.
In the run-up to the coming assembly polls, the BJP government in the hill state has already launched a campaign to highlight the GDP growth of 11 percent as part of its achievements.
Under Five Mortality Rate (U5MR) which denotes the number of children who died before reaching their fifth birthday per 1,000 live births has been reported in Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand as minimum at 24 and maximum in Kandhmal district of Orissa at 145. More number of females in districts die before reaching age 5 years as compared to their counterparts.
In all, 7 districts viz. Pithoragarh, Almora, Rudraprayag, Chamoli, Nainital & Bagheswar (Uttarakhand) and Purbi Singhbhum (Jharkhand) have already achieved the MDG -4 National target of 42 by 2015. Another 10 districts viz. Dhanbad, Bokaro, Kodarma, Hazaribagh & Giridih (Jharkhand) and Kota (Rajasthan) and Champawat, Udham Singh Nagar, Dehradun & Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand) are in closer vicinity.
Rural U5MR in districts is significantly higher than the urban.
In order to facilitate direct intervention, the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) measuring the proportion of maternal deaths per 1,00,000 live births has been published for a group of districts in terms of existing administrative divisions in the respective AHS States.
Among these divisions, the minimum MMR of 183 has been reported for Kumaon in Uttarakhand and the maximum 451 in Faizabad Mandal in UP.
Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) defined as the number of female live births per 1,000 male live births has been reported the lowest at 764 in Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand and the maximum 1030 in Moradabad district of Uttar Pradesh. SRB in rural areas of districts is generally higher than in urban areas.