The call came amid mass demonstrations across the West Bank, Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem.
He said Friday would be "the beginning of a new movement" to fight Israel's plan of occupation of West Bank and Jerusalem, Xinhua news agency reported.
"Trump will regret this decision," said Haniyeh. He also called for a general Palestinian meeting to discuss the current situation and to reach an agreement on future Palestinian politics.
Describing Trump's recognition as "a turning point in the history of the Palestinian cause", the Hamas leader stressed that Jerusalem "has always been the source of victory, the beginning of revolutions and the starting point of uprisings".
He reiterated that Hamas would never recognize the legitimacy of Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories.
On Wednesday, Trump officially announced his recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's capital and his intention of moving the US embassy from Tel Aviv to the ancient city.
The US leader's declaration triggered a wave of popular anger and outrage among Palestinians. The Palestinian factions and political powers declared a general strike in the West Bank, Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem. Some set fire to the US flags and pictures of Trump in Gaza.
Shops were closed and the business of local markets was affected by the comprehensive strike.
Protests erupted mainly in the West Bank cities of Ramallah, Bethlehem and Hebron, East Jerusalem as well as in the Gaza Strip. Dozens of youths expressed anger over Trump's move by setting tires on fire for hours at night in various parts of Gaza.
Also in Gaza, three Palestinians were reportedly injured during clashes with Israeli soldiers.