Du Plessis takes the place of AB de Villiers, who resigned as the ODI skipper a few weeks ago.
"Congratulations to Faf on his appointment as the natural successor to the ODI leadership," commented CSA Chief Executive, Haroon Lorgat.
"He has established himself as one of the best leaders in world cricket and this was reflected in his appointment as the captain for the World XI currently engaged in the T20 Series against Pakistan," he added.
Du Plessis' first assignment as South Africa's captain in all formats will be a home series against Bangladesh later this month, which consists of two Tests, three ODIs and three T20Is.
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