The measure will be in effect until further notice, the president said during a meeting with the high command of the National Bolivarian Armed Forces.
The move comes amid what he called "provocation" from Brazil's right-wing government, reports Xinhua news agency.
Venezuela is also considering sealing its border with Colombia, he added.
"I don't want to have to make these types of decisions, but I am evaluating it -- the total closure of the border with Colombia," said Maduro.
The president called on Colombia's armed forces to refrain from taking part in the Washington-orchestrated maneuvers, including an announced February 23 attempt to deliver humanitarian aid, which Venezuelan officials believe is a pretext for military intervention.
Political tensions between the government and opposition groups in Venezuela came to a head after Maduro was sworn in to a new term on January 10.
The opposition, which largely boycotted the presidential elections in May, refuses to recognize Maduro's re-election win and has been demanding a new round of voting.
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