Mohammed Bader, 21 and from Abu Dis in the occupied West Bank on the outskirts of Jerusalem, was accused of having stabbed an ultra-Orthodox Jew on May 16 as he was walking with his wife and two of his children.
A plea bargain saw him plead guilty to attempted murder.
Several stiff sentences have been handed out recently to Palestinians convicted for attacks.
On Monday, an Israeli court jailed a Palestinian for life for the 2015 killing of two Israelis and the wounding of a third in a Tel Aviv knife attack.
At a separate court hearing Monday in Lod, near Tel Aviv, judges jailed another Palestinian for 16 years and six months.
Since October, 241 Palestinians, 36 Israelis, two Americans, a Jordanian, an Eritrean and a Sudanese have been killed, according to an AFP count.
Most of the Palestinians killed were carrying out knife, gun or car-ramming attacks, according to Israeli authorities.
Others were shot dead during protests or clashes, while some died in Israeli air strikes on Gaza.
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