Coal India Ltd (CIL) is a 'Maharatna' Public Sector Undertaking under Ministry of Coal Government of India with headquarters at Kolkata West Bengal. CIL is the single largest coal producing company in the world and one of the largest corporate employers. CIL operates through 82 mining areas spread over eight provincial states of India. CIL has 394 mines (as on 1st April 2017) of which 193 are underground 177 opencast and 24 mixed mines. CIL further operates 15 coal washeries (12 coking coal and 3 non-coking coal) and also manages other establishments like workshops hospitals and so on. The company produces non-coking coal and coking coal of various grades for diverse applications. Most of the coal production is from open cast mines. Coal India's major consumers are power and steel sectors. Others include cement fertilizer brick kilns and a host of other industries. The company sells substantially all of the raw coal it produces in the Indian market. CIL has eight fully owned Indian subsidiary companies namely Eastern Coalfields Limited (ECL) Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL) Central Coalfields Limited (CCL) Western Coalfields Limited (WCL) South Eastern Coalfields Limited (SECL) Northern Coalfields Limited (NCL) Mahanadi Coalfields Limited (MCL) and Central Mine Planning & Design Institute Limited (CMPDIL). The mines in Assam i.e. North Eastern Coalfields continue to be managed directly by CIL. Similarly Dankuni Coal Complex also continues to be on lease with South Eastern Coalfields Limited. MCL has three subsidiaries viz. MNH Shakti Ltd. MJSJ Coal Ltd. and Mahanadi Basin Power Ltd with 70% 60% and 100% equity holding respectively. During 2012-13 SECL incorporated two subsidiary companies viz M/s Chhattisgarh East Railway LTD on 12 March 2013 and M/s Chhattisgarh East- West Railway Ltd on 25 March 2013 with 64% holding in each of the subsidiary.CIL has established a foreign subsidiary in Mozambique namely Coal India Africana Limitada (CIAL) to pursue coal mining opportunities in Mozambique and acquired prospecting licenses for two coal blocks in Mozambique.The company's coal production operations are primarily carried out through its wholly-owned subsidiaries in India. In addition another wholly owned subsidiary CMPDIL carries out exploration activities for their subsidiaries and provides technical and consultancy services for their operations as well as to third-party clients for coal exploration mining processing and related activities. Coal India Limited (CIL) as an organized state owned coal mining corporate came into being following the nationalization of coal industry in India. Coal India Ltd was incorporated on June 14 1973 as a private limited company with the name Coal Mines Authority Ltd. During the year 1975-76 the name of the company was changed from Coal Mines Authority Ltd to Coal India Ltd. Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Ltd Eastern Coalfields Ltd Western Coalfields Ltd Bharat Coking Coal Ltd and Central Coalfields Ltd became the subsidiaries of the company.During the year 1979-80 the company constructed the low temperature carbonized plant started in Dankuni Coal Complex. During the year 1980-81 they constructed five new washeries namely Moonidih washery Ramgarh washery Mohuda washery Barora washery and Kedla washery. During the year 1985-86 the company formed Northern Coalfields Ltd and South Eastern Coalfields Ltd as subsidiaries of the company to manage certain mines managed by WCL and CCL. During the year 1987-88 they introduced 'Blasting Gallery Method' at East Katras mine under BCCL and Chora mine under ECL. During the year 1992-93 the company formed MCL as their subsidiaries to manage mines Talcher and IB valley in the state of Orissa. During the year 2006-07 the Department of Public Enterprises GoI awarded 'Mini Ratna' status to the company and to MCL NCL SECL and WCL. During the year 2007-08 CCL was awarded the 'Mini Ratna' status by the Department of Public Enterprises.During the year 2008-09 the company was awarded 'Navratna' status by the Department of Public Enterprises GoI taking into consideration the company's operational efficiency and financial strength. The Navratna status gives greater operational freedom and autonomy to the management in decision making.During the year 2009-10 the company was converted into a public limited company. The company established of Coal India Africana Limitada a foreign subsidiary in Mozambique. Also CMPDIL was awarded 'Mini Ratna' status by the Department of Public Enterprises GoI. The company was awarded Scope Excellence Award by the Standing Conference of Public Enterprises for the year 2007-08. In March 30 2010 the company signed an MoU with their administrative ministry - Ministry of Coal - for its key performance areas for the fiscal 2010-11. As per the MoU for the fiscal 2010-11 CIL's targeted production and coal off-take have been pegged at 461.5 Million Tonnes (MTs) and 462.5 MTs respectively for attaining an 'Excellent' rating.In October 2010 the company made an initial public offer of shares and their shares were listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange with effect from November 4 2010. In December 2010 the company signed an MoU with Shipping Corporation of India Ltd for promoting a joint venture company.In March 7 2011 the company bagged a prestigious International award in Geneva. The company was conferred with the 'Century International Quality ERA Award (CRE) in the Gold Category in recognition of commitment to quality leadership technology and innovation. In April 11 2011 the company was conferred with 'Maharatna Status' by the Government of India. Government of India introduced the Maharatna scheme in February 2010 for Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSE) in order to empower the mega CPSEs to expand their operations and emerge as global giants. In May 17 2011 the company became the most valuable PSU with a market capitalisation of Rs 2.51 lakh crore.In 2012 Coal India signs MoU with Government. The company also CIL signs FSA with 14 power companies. CIL gets 116 mines from government to boost outputIn 2014 Coal India signs MoU with Government for 2014-15. Coal India and Tata Medical Centre join hands. Coal India announces Rs. 235 Crores for Clean India initiative.In 2015 the Union Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship and the Coal India Limited signed a Memorandum of Agreement to impart skill training to 1.7 lakh people. The company along with GAIL (India) Ltd Rashtriya Chemical Fertilizers Ltd (RCF) and Fertilizer Corporation of India Ltd (FCIL) entered into a Joint Venture (JV) agreement on 27 October 2015 for incorporation of Rashtriya Coal Gas Fertilizers Ltd. to establish and operate new coal gasification based Fertilizer Complex (Ammonia Urea Complex) at Talcher along with power plant and associated facilities at Talcher unit of FCIL and to market its products.On 17 May 2016 Competition Appellate Tribunal allowed CIL's appeal setting aside the orders of the Competition Commission of India (CCI) imposing penalty of Rs 1773 crore on CIL in relation to complaints filed by various power and non-power companies on 9 December 2013. The case was remitted back to CCI for it to hear the matter again on merits and pass fresh orders. The Board of Directors of CIL at its meeting held on 28 May 2016 approved 6.29% increase in coal prices with effect from 30 May 2016 to be applicable to all subsidiaries of CIL and NEC for regulated and non-regulated sectors. The company's Board also approved the differential price for Non-Regulated Sector at a reduced rate of 20% over the price of Regulated Sector for G6 to G17 grades of coal for all subsidiaries of CIL.On 28 June 2016 Coal India Limited (CIL) and Solar Energy Corporation of India Limited signed two agreements for the implementation of 200 MW solar power projects in Madhya Pradesh for the beneficial utilisation of solar power by Northern Coalfields Limited and South Eastern Coalfields each at an estimated cost of Rs 650 crore. Northern Coalfields Limited and South Eastern Coalfields are both subsidiaries of CIL.The Board of Directors of CIL at its meeting held on 11 July 2016 approved share buyback programme for buyback of up to 10.89 crore equity shares through the Tender Offer process at a price of Rs 335 per equity share for an aggregate consideration not exceeding Rs 3650 crore. On 27 September 2016 CIL announced one time offer of 20 Mt coal under Special Spot e-auction.On 3 July 2017 CIL announced auction of coal linkages (Tranche III) for non regulated sector as per policy guidelines issued by the Ministry of Coal Government of India.