. EDIT | After an ambush
"The quantum of violence as well as the resultant killings perpetrated by the left-wing extremist groups in 2012 declined significantly for the second successive year," said a report Singh released on Wednesday to mark the fourth anniversary of his second term in office.
. Will not bow down before Naxalism: PM
The only possible real long-term solution is to increase access of those in deprived areas to the benefits of inclusive growth. That will require, however, a greater effort to restore the rule of law than has been seen hitherto.
. Antony rules out use of Army in anti-Naxal operations
In 2005, Salwa Judum began as a government-backed "people's resistance movement" against the Naxalites. In the Gondi language of the tribals of Dantewada and Bastar, Salwa Judum means peace march.
But in effect, it involved authorities arming tribal villagers to fight the Naxals.
The People's War is active in Andhra Pradesh, western Orissa and eastern Maharashtra while the Maoist Communist Centre is active in Bihar, Jharkhand and northern Chhattisgarh.
At a local level, the Naxalites have also been known to claim 'tax' from the Adivasis and landless farmers. They run a parallel government in these areas.
The Naxalite movement took shape after some members of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) split to form the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist), after the former agreed to participate in elections and form a coalition government in West Bengal. Communist leader Charu Mazumdar led the split.
The rebel cadres led by Majumdar launch a peasants' uprising at Naxalbari in Darjeeling district of West Bengal after a tribal youth, who had a judicial order to plough his land, was attacked by "goons" of local landlords. Tribals retaliated and started forcefully capturing back their lands. The CPI (M) government cracked down on the uprising and in 72 days of the "rebellion" a police sub-inspector and nine tribals were killed.
The Congress government at the Centre supported the crackdown. The incident echoed throughout India and Naxalism was born.
Do they face opposition?
When the Naxalite movement first started in the late sixties in West Bengal, it was the CPI-M that cracked down hardest on the Maoist rebels. At village levels, the Naxalites' terror tactics have created local armies to provide protection to the landlords and others. The most infamous of these is the Ranvir Sena in Bihar and Jharkhand, formed by Bhumihars.
April 22, 2009: Maoists stopped a train and held over 500 passengers hostage for more than four hours, deep in the forests of Latehar district (Jharkhand), apparently to “punish” the railways for having run trains on what was a daylong bandh called by them against the death of five villagers in a CRPF operation on April 15.
May 22, 2009: Naxalites kill 16 policemen in the jungles of Gadchiroli district in Maharashtra.
June 10, 2009: Nine policemen ambushed by Maoists during a routine patrol in Saranda jungles in Jharkhand.
June 13, 2009: Naxals launch two landmine and bomb attacks in a small town close to Bokaro, killing 10 policemen and injuring several others.
June 23, 2009: A group of motorcycle-borne armed Naxal rebels open fire on Lakhisarai district court premises in Bihar and free four of their comrades including the self-style Zonal Commander of Ranchi.
July 18, 2009: Naxalites kill a villager in Bastar and in a separate incident torch a vehicle engaged in road construction work in Bijapur district of Chhattisgarh.
July 27, 2009: Six persons killed when Naxals trigger a landmine blast at Dantewada district in Chhattisgarh.
July 31, 2009: A special police officer and another person killed by Naxals in Bijapur district.
Sep 4, 2009: Naxals kill four villagers in a forest in Aaded village in Chhattisgarh's Bijapur district.
Sep 30, 2009: Naxalites set ablaze Gram Panchayat offices at Korchi and Belgaon in Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra.
April 4, 2010: Maoists triggered a landmine blast killing 11 security personnel of the elite anti-naxal force Special Operations Group (SOG) in Koraput district of Orrisa.
April 6, 2010: 75 CRPF personnel and a Chhattisgarh police official killed in a naxal attack in Dantewada district.
May 8, 2010: Eight CRPF jawans were killed when Naxals blew up a bullet-proof vehicle in Bijapur district of Chhhattisgarh.
May 17, 2010: Naxalites kill 50 in Dantewada's landmine blast in Chhattisgarh.
May 8, 2010: Naxalites kill 8 CRPF personnel after blowing up a vehicle in Narayanpur district.
June 29, 2010: Naxalites kill 26 CRPF personnel after firijng at a 63-member contingent in Raipur.
July 16, 2010: Naxalites trigger landmine blast in Jharkhand, kill 5 cops.
July 17, 2010: Naxalites kill 3 suspexcted police informers in West Midnapore.
July 20, 2010: Naxalites kill 2 CPI(M) axctivists in Sindurpur vi llage in Purulia.
August 4, 2010: Naxalites blow up a culvert in Giridih, claim five lives.
September 13, 2010: Naxals kill 5 CPI(M) supporters in Jhargram.
September 13, 2010: Naxalites kill 9 in Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand.
October 6, 2010: Naxalites trigger landmine blast in Gadchiroli, claim lives of 6 security personnel.
October 10, 2010: Naxalites gun down two CPI(M) supporters in Purulia.
June 26, 2011: Five security men killed in twin Naxal attacks in Chhattisgarh.
July 2, 2011: Naxalites kill 6 tribals in Munger.
August 19, 2011: Naxalites Maoists kill 11 policemen in Chhattisgarh.
December 4, 2011: Naxalites attack MP's convoy in Jharkhand, kill 8.
January 21, 2012: Naxalites kill 13 cops in ladmine blast in Jharkhand.
April 26, 2012: Naxalites kill 2 villagers, suspected of being police informers, in Maharashtra.
May 13, 2012: Naxalites ambush in Dantewada claims seven lives.
August 7, 2012: Naxalites kill 2 CRPF personnel in Dantewada.
January 7, 2013: Naxalites kill 10 CRPF jawans in gun-fight with the force.
February 22, 2013: Naxalites trigger landmine blast in Gaya, claim 6 policemen’s lives.
May 12, 2013: Naxalites kill 3 cops in attack on Doordarshan tower in Chhattisgarh.