Merkel, who chose not to cover her hair or wear a traditional flowing black robe, was greeted by King Salman and other top officials upon her arrival at Jeddah, reports the Independent.
However, she is not the first western woman, who did not cover her hair upon arrival in the conservative Islamic kingdom, as Hillary Clinton, Theresa May and Michelle Obama had also not covered their hair in Saudi Arabia.
Women in Saudi Arabia are required to wear a full-length robe and cover their hair, in keeping with other restrictive laws, including a guardian system limiting women's movement and a ban on driving.
Merkel told journalists that she had pressed the Saudis on women's rights, the war in Yemen and other sensitive issues.
This is Merkel's first visit to the kingdom in seven years.
Merkel had also called for the burqa to be banned in Germany, saying it was "not acceptable in our country".
She had said that it should be banned if it is legally possible.