Buttler, who is currently impressing for Rajasthan Royals at the ongoing Indian Premier League (IPL), is expected to play as a specialist batsman at number seven. He has not played Test cricket since England's Test against India in Chennai in December 2016.
Also in the squad is Mark Wood, who left the IPL early in order to push his claim for a place in England's Test side.
England's new national selector Ed Smith has also called up uncapped off-spinner Dom Bess following an injury to his Somerset spin twin Jack Leach, who played in the side's previous Test against New Zealand.
Bess, 20, has an average of 22.49 from 16 first-class games.
Commenting on the squad, Smith said: "Jos Buttler is an outstanding talent, who is already a central part of England's white ball teams."
"The selection panel feels that this is the perfect moment to reintroduce Jos to Test cricket, where he has already enjoyed some success, including a stint playing as a specialist batsman at number seven. Jos is playing with great confidence and flair, and he will bring unique qualities to the Test team," he added.
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