The External Affairs Ministry said the visit was aimed at deepening "our multifaceted ties with the Gulf and West Asian region".
Officials said energy and security cooperation, trade and investment and counter-terror efforts will top Modi's agenda during the February 9-12 trip to the region.
Before embarking on the visit, the Prime Minister tweeted that the Gulf and West Asian region was a "key priority in our external engagement".
"I am grateful to Abdullah for facilitating the transit and look forward to meeting him in Amman," Modi said before leaving.
Modi will be the first Indian Prime Minister to visit Palestine where he will meet President Mahmoud Abbas. "Looking forward to my discussions with President Abbas and reaffirming our support for the Palestinian people and the development of Palestine."
The Palestinian President, in a pre-arrival welcome statement, described Modi's visit as "historic and significant".
Modi is expected to hold talks with the Sultan of Oman and other leaders.
There shall be interactions with business people of Oman on developing stronger economic links with India, Modi said.
"At the invitation of the leadership of the UAE, I will be addressing the 6th edition of the World Government Summit in Dubai where India is the guest country of honour," Modi said.
As many as 12 agreements are expected to be signed during Modi's visit to the UAE. The agreements will include areas like finance and skills development.
(This story has not been edited by Business Standard staff and is auto-generated from a syndicated feed.)