Sam Billings was ruled out of England's limited-overs matches against Ireland and Pakistan with a dislocated left shoulder on Friday.
Wicketkeeper Billings was injured in the opening over of Kent's One-Day Cup match against Glamorgan on Thursday, his first appearance of the season for his county after a stint with the Chennai Super Kings in the Indian Premier League.
Surrey's Ben Foakes has been called into the England squad to replace him.
Though not in the 15-man squad for the World Cup, Billings, who has played 15 one-day internationals, had been in line to face both Ireland in next Friday's one-off ODI and Pakistan in a Twenty20 match two days later.
The 27-year-old now joins a list of injury concerns for head coach Trevor Bayliss which also includes Eoin Morgan, Jason Roy, and Joe Denly.
With England's first-choice wicketkeepers Jos Buttler and Jonny Bairstow both being rested, Foakes is now in line to make his international white-ball debut.
Kent announced Billings would require surgery and would be sidelined for between three and five months, which would rule him out of any potential involvement in the World Cup, taking place in England and Wales from next month.
"Sam has seen a specialist this morning, where he underwent a scan to assess the extent of his injury," said Kent director of cricket Paul Downton.
"The scan highlighted significant damage to his shoulder, meaning he will require surgical intervention.
"This surgery has been scheduled for next week and it is anticipated that he will be back to fitness within three to five months."
Fellow England international Ollie Pope also needs surgery.
The Surrey batsman, who has played two Tests for his country, dislocated his shoulder while fielding during the One-Day Cup match with Essex on Tuesday.
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