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Authorities ordered a mass evacuation of people Monday from an expanded danger zone around an erupting volcano on Bali that has forced the Indonesian island's international airport to close, stranding tens of thousands of travellers.
Mount Agung has been hurling clouds of white and dark grey ash about 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) into the atmosphere since the weekend. A mudflow of volcanic debris and water are known as a lahar was filmed moving down the volcano's slopes.
The National Disaster Mitigation Agency raised the alert to the highest level on Monday and expanded the danger zone to 10 kilometres in places from the previous maximum of 7.5 kilometres. It said in a statement that a larger eruption is possible.
Spokesman Sutopo Purwo Nugroho told a news conference in Jakarta that the extension of the danger zone affects 22 villages and about 90,000 to 100,000 people.
He said about 40,000 people have evacuated but others have not left because they feel safe or don't want to abandon their livestock.
"Authorities will comb the area to persuade them," he said. "If needed we will forcibly evacuate them." About 25,000 people were already living in evacuation centres after an increase in tremors from the mountain in September sparked an evacuation.
Bali's airport was closed early Monday after ash reached its airspace. Flight information boards showed rows of cancellations as tourists arrived at the busy airport expecting to catch flights home.
Airport spokesman Air Ahsanurrohim said 445 flights were cancelled, stranding about 59,000 travellers. The closure is in effect until Tuesday morning though officials said the situation will be reviewed every six hours.
Bali is Indonesia's top tourist destination, with its gentle Hindu culture, surf beaches and lush green interior attracting about 5 million visitors a year.
Some flights to and from Bali were cancelled on Saturday and Sunday but most had continued to operate normally as the towering ash clouds were moving east toward the neighbouring island of Lombok.
"We now have to find a hotel and spend more of our money that they're not going to cover us for when we get home, unfortunately," said Canadian tourist Brandon Olsen who was stranded at Bali's airport with his girlfriend.
Indonesia's Directorate General of Land Transportation said 100 buses are being deployed to Bali's international airport and to ferry terminals to help travellers stranded by the eruption of Mount Agung.
The agency's chief, Budi, said major ferry crossing points have been advised to prepare for a surge in passengers and vehicles. Stranded tourists could leave Bali by taking a ferry to neighbouring Java and then travel by land to the nearest airports.
The geological agency head, Kasbani, who goes by one name, said the alert level was raised because the volcano has shifted from steam-based eruptions to magmatic eruptions. He told Indonesian television on Monday morning that he did not expect a big eruption but added: "we have to stay alert and anticipate."
The volcano's last major eruption in 1963 killed about 1,100 people.
Ash has settled on villages and resorts around the volcano and soldiers and police distributed masks on the weekend.
In Karangasem district that surrounds the volcano, tourists stopped to watch the towering plumes of ash as children made their way to their schools.
Indonesia sits on the "Pacific Ring of Fire" and has more than 120 active volcanoes.
Mount Agung's alert status was raised to the highest level in September following a dramatic increase in tremors from the volcano, which doubled the exclusion zone around the crater and prompted more than 140,000 people to leave the area.
The alert was lowered on October 29 after a decrease in activity but about 25,000 people remained in evacuation centres.
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