Patole's name is among the five candidates from Maharashtra announced Wednesday.
Former ministers Sushilkumar Shinde and Milind Deora also figure in the Congress' first list of Lok Sabha candidates from the state released in Delhi.
Shinde will contest from Solapur and Deora from South Mumbai seat.
Patole, who was the sitting MP from Bhandara-Gondia constituency when he quit the BJP to join the Congress, has been fielded against Gadkari in Nagpur.
The screening committee of the Congress, headed by party's in-charge of Maharashtra Mallikarjun Kharge, finalised the candidates in Delhi, said party sources.
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