He eclipsed the India record of 10 catches in a game by Wriddhiman Saha, as the visitors won the opening game by 31 runs to go 1-0 up in the four-match series.
Pant equalled the world record after taking Mitchell Starc's catch off Mohammed Shami's ball in the second innings at the Adelaide Oval.
The wicketkeeper caught six batsmen in first innings and five in the next on way to the record.
In the first innings, Pant was involved in the dismissals of Usman Khawaja, Peter Handscomb and Tim Paine before pouching on to edges off Starc, Travis Head and Josh Hazlewood's willow.
When India bowled again, he played a role in the departure of openers Marcus Harris and Aaron Finch, followed by Shaun Marsh, Peter Handscomb, Paine and Starc.
Pant equalled the India record when he took his tenth catch of the match -- a top edge off Australia skipper Tim Paine.
"It was nervous as they were coming close, but we did well. I'm happy to contribute to the team. I always enjoy troubling batsmen, I love it when they concentrate on me and not on the bowlers," said Pant, who was heard egging on the bowlers on the stump mic.
In the first innings, Pant had equalled Mahendra Singh Dhoni's record of most catches (six) by an Indian wicketkeeper in a Test innings.
Pant, who is playing only his sixth Test, was selected in the Indian team following an injury to Saha.