After debating the motion put forward by May in the Parliament, 522 of the 650 sitting MPs voted in favour of the June 8 election, passing the threshold of two-thirds needed to approve the plan.
May made a unexpected announcement on Tuesday that she would seek a "snap" election less than halfway through her government's five-year term, with the aim of gaining a stronger mandate for the country's historic withdrawal from the European Union.
The announcement marked a U-turn for May, who had repeatedly said she would not seek an early vote.
The snap vote is the latest twist in a turbulent year in British politics, which was plunged into turmoil when the country unexpectedly voted to leave the European Union last year. The hotly contested "Brexit" referendum ended with the resignation of then-Prime Minister David Cameron.
An early vote is also expected to delay Brexit talks. Both May and the European Commission have said that negotiations will only start in earnest after the poll.
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