Nordhaus, a 77-year-old economics professor at Yale University, was awarded this year's Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for inventing macroeconomic analysis models that take into consideration the effects caused by climate change and the corrective policies that can be used to counter its damage.
The American economist said none of them had imposed any kind of responsibility and instead were completely voluntary, which he described as the main reason they had made no effect.
Nordhaus said that, in his view, countries should have certain obligations, responsibilities and commitments in order to obtain results from a climate deal.
Nordhaus said this obligation had to "go beyond being mandatory" by also imposing punitive sanctions on the countries refusing to participate in an agreement.
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