Kohli has moved back to the top within 10 days of losing it to South Africa batsman AB de Villiers after the rankings were updated following India's 2-1 home series win over against New Zealand.
The 28-year-old Delhi batsman, who scored 263 runs in the series, has reached 889 points, which is the best ever by an India batsman.
India opener Rohit Sharma's 174 runs in the series has seen him reach a career-high rating of 799 points, even though he remains in seventh position.
Former captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni has risen one place to 11th in the latest rankings.
The list for bowlers continues to be led by Pakistan pace bowler Hasan Ali while India fast bowler Jasprit Bumrah has reached a career-best third after finishing with six wickets in the series against New Zealand.
Other bowlers to move northwards include left-arm spinners Mitchell Santner of New Zealand (up two places to 14th) and Pakistan's Imad Wasim (up 14 places to 27th). Adam Milne has also made significant movement, gaining 11 slots to reach 42nd position.
India's 2-1 win over New Zealand was not enough for them to overtake South Africa, who hold the top ranking in the at 121 points, ahead of India by two points.