"The judges decided that an investigation into the situation in Afghanistan at this stage would not serve the interests of justice," the Hague-based court said in a statement.
Fatou Bensouda's US visa was revoked over a possible probe involving American soldiers' actions since 2003 in the bloody Afghan conflict.
Bensouda in late 2017 asked judges to give her permission to probe alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity in Afghanistan committed by the Taliban, Afghan government forces and international forces including US troops.
The US has never joined the ICC and does not recognise its authority over American citizens, saying it poses a threat to national sovereignty.
Washington also argues that it has its own robust procedures in place to deal with US troops who engage in misconduct.
Judges said Friday that "notwithstanding the fact that all the relevant requirements are met as regards both jurisdiction and admissibility... the current circumstances in Afghanistan... make the prospect of a successful investigation and prosecution extremely limited."
The time elapsed since the opening of a preliminary probe in 2006, Afghanistan's changing political scene and the "lack of political cooperation the prosecutor has received" was likely to grow scarcer should an investigation proceed, the judges said.
The court, which operates on a limited budget, also needed to prioritise its resources on "activities that would have a better chance to succeed," the judges said.
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