The 40-year-old called time on his 25-Test career after the end of the 2015 Ashes series and has been involved in multiple coaching roles since then.
"Chris brings thoughtfulness, persistence and passion to the role and combines this with a strong intellect," said CA executive general manager of team performance Pat Howard.
"We're looking forward to having Chris work with Australia's next generation and watching him develop as a coach.
"We are confident he can have a big impact in moulding our rising stars into future international cricketers."
Rogers, who had a successful first-class career in Australia and England spanning almost two decades and more than 300 matches despite being colour blind, will concentrate on the batting alongside fellow high-performance coach Ryan Harris, who will develop the bowlers.
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