They are understood to have exchanged views on bilateral issues, particularly on the situation along the nearly 4,000 km-border between the two countries, official sources said.
Both Sitharaman and Wei are in Moscow to attend the 7th Moscow Conference on International Security.
Sitharaman herself tweeted a picture of her meeting with Wei.
There was no official details about the meeting.
Troops of India and China were locked in a 73-day standoff in Doklam from June 16 last year after the Indian side stopped building of a road in the disputed area by the Chinese Army. The face-off ended on August 28.