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An overview of CSR Rules under Companies Act, 2013

The rules, effective April 2014, embrace both private and public firms, and spell out a range of activities for companies to undertake in order to meet their obligations

Ekta Bahl  |  Hyderabad 

The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has notified Section 135 and Schedule VII of the Act 2013 as well as the provisions of the (Corporate Social Responsibility Policy) Rules, 2014 to come into effect from April 1, 2014.

With effect from April 1, 2014, every company, private limited or public limited, which either has a net worth of Rs 500 crore or a turnover of Rs 1,000 crore or net profit of Rs 5 crore, needs to spend at least 2% of its average net profit for the immediately preceding three financial years on corporate social responsibility activities. The activities should not be undertaken in the normal course of business and must be with respect to any of the activities mentioned in Schedule VII of the 2013 Act. Contribution to any political party is not considered to be a activity and only activities in India would be considered for computing expenditure.


The net worth, turnover and net profits are to be computed in terms of Section 198 of the 2013 Act as per the profit and loss statement prepared by the company in terms of Section 381 (1) (a) and Section 198 of the 2013 Act. While these provisions have not yet been notified, is has been clarified that if net profits are computed under the Act, 1956 they needn't be recomputed under the 2013 Act. Profits from any overseas branch of the company, including those branches that are operated as a separate company would not be included in the computation of net profits of a company. Besides, dividends received from other in India which need to comply with the obligations would not be included in the computation of net profits of a company.

The Rules appear to widen the ambit for compliance obligations to include the holding and subsidiary as well as foreign whose branches or project offices in India fulfil the specified criteria. There is a need for clarity with respect to the compliance obligations of a company as well as its holding and subsidiary

The activities that can be undertaken by a company to fulfil its obligations include eradicating hunger, poverty and malnutrition, promoting preventive healthcare, promoting education and promoting gender equality, setting up homes for women, orphans and the senior citizens, measures for reducing inequalities faced by socially and economically backward groups, ensuring environmental sustainability and ecological balance, animal welfare, protection of national heritage and art and culture, measures for the benefit of armed forces veterans, war widows and their dependents, training to promote rural, nationally recognized, Paralympic or Olympic sports, contribution to the prime minister's national relief fund or any other fund set up by the Central Government  for socio economic development and relief and welfare of  SC, ST, OBCs, minorities and women, contributions or funds provided to technology incubators located within academic institutions approved by the Central Government and rural development projects. 

However, in determining activities to be undertaken, preference would need to be given to local areas and the areas around where the company operates.

To formulate and monitor the policy of a company, a Committee of the Board needs to be constituted. Section 135 of the 2013 Act requires the Committee to consist of at least three directors, including an independent director. However, Rules exempts unlisted public and private that are not required to appoint an independent director from having an independent director as a part of their Committee and stipulates that the Committee for a private company and a foreign company need have a minimum of only 2 members.

A company can undertake its activities through a registered trust or society, a company established by its holding, subsidiary or associate company or otherwise, provided that the company has specified the activities to be undertaken, the modalities for utilization of funds as well as the reporting and monitoring mechanism. If the entity through which the activities are being undertaken is not established by the company or its holding, subsidiary or associate company, such entity would need to have an established track record of three years undertaking similar activities.

can also collaborate with each other for jointly undertaking activities, provided that each of the are able individually report on such projects.

A company can build capabilities of its personnel or implementation agencies through institutions with established track records of at least three years, provided that the expenditure for such activities does not exceed 5% of the total expenditure of the company in a single financial year.

The Rules specify that a company which does not satisfy the specified criteria for a consecutive period of three financial years is not required to comply with the obligations, implying that a company not satisfying any of the specified criteria in a subsequent financial year would still need to undertake activities unless it ceases to satisfy the specified criteria for a continuous period of three years. This could increase the burden on small which do not continue to make significant profits.

The report of the Board of Directors attached to the financial statements of the Company would also need to include an annual report on the activities of the company in the format prescribed in the Rules setting out inter alia a brief outline of the policy, the composition of the Committee, the average net profit for the last three financial years and the prescribed expenditure. If the company has been unable to spend the minimum required on its initiatives, the reasons for not doing so are to be specified in the Board Report.

Where a company has a website, the policy of the company would need to be disclosed on such website.

The author is a partner at Tatva Legal, a pan-India law firm. Views are personal

First Published: Mon, March 10 2014. 12:48 IST
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