Phatangale was allegedly assaulted by a group of people when he was on his way home.
Police have withheld the identity of the three accused.
An officer of the local crime branch said the police had obtained video footage of the attack on Phatangale.
"Faces of some of the attackers were clearly seen in the footage, and based on the video, these three persons were tracked down," said the officer.
More people were involved in the incident and police were trying to identify them, he said.
Dalits view the historic battle as the defeat of "casteist" Peshwas who had represented the Maratha empire.
On January 1, several vehicles, shops, houses were vandalised and torched by mobs in areas near Koregaon Bhima.
Lakhs of Dalits visit the Koregaon Ranstambh (victory pillar) every year to commemorate the Koregaon Bhima battle.
It is seen as a symbol of Dalit assertion against upper- caste rulers, but some pro-Hindutva organisations had opposed celebration of the British victory against a native army.
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