The blast was heard across the Afghan capital, which has seen a recent drop in insurgent attacks after several high-profile strikes earlier this year.
"The vehicle detonated too early and didn't reach the convoy. There were no ISAF casualties."
Interior ministry spokesman Sidiq Sediqqi confirmed the attack on the heavily fortified airport, which houses a major NATO military base as well as operating civilian flights to destinations including Dubai, New Delhi and Istanbul.
Sediqqi said there were no Afghan casualties in the incident.
A series of suicide bomb and gun attacks earlier this year targeted foreign compounds, the Supreme Court, the airport and the presidential palace in the capital.
In October, a similar car bomb attack killed two civilians outside a compound housing foreign workers near the airport.